Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Comedy Techniques in Dumb and Dumber essays

Satire Techniques in Dumb and Dumber papers One of my preferred satire films is Dumb and Dumber. The film is about a limo driver and his closest companion, driving the nation over to restore an attaché to a lady who had deserted it at the air terminal. And keeping in mind that driving along, run into and cause numerous unbelievable incidents. Numerous hypotheses are available in this film. You see the slander or hostility speculations alongside the prevalence hypothesis. Stupid and Dumber is composed quite well. It has a great deal parody methods included that makes it so entertaining. At the asking of the film, Lloyd (Jim Carrey) the limo driver observes that Mary (Lauren Holly), the lady he had quite recently dropped off at the air terminal, had put her portfolio down and left without it. Viewing the film, we realize that she had put the folder case down intentionally. Two crowd type individuals were getting ready to get the drop off. Not long before they get to it, Lloyd comes sliding in and grabs the attaché up to return it to Mary. The predominance hypothesis clarifies why we think this interesting. We realize that she had dropped the case off intentionally for another person to get it. Yet, Lloyd doesnt realize this should occur. Lloyd never finds Mary and pledges to himself and his closest companion Harry (Jeff Daniels) that he is going to restore the case to her. They set off from Rhode Island to Aspen not realizing that they are being followed the whole time by the crowd characters. We indeed giggle at this teams setbacks and adversities. Everybody knows th! at Aspen is in Colorado. Another silly case of this hypothesis is at a scene where Lloyd and Harry are pulled over for speeding. Lloyd needed to pee gravely and couldnt hold it for the following stop. In franticness he tops off void brew bottles with his pee. After they are pulled over the cop associates them with drinking and questions them about the brew bottles on the vehicle floor. He snatches one of the containers and goes to ... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Methods for Simply Supported Beams and Columns in Steel Essay

Techniques for Simply Supported Beams and Columns in Steel - Essay Example (Talk 10.6.2: Shear Connection II) To characterize the aggregate and fragmentary shear association, one can rearrange as just an essentially bolstered pillar by methods for 'steady cross-segments' that are regarded to thought of an equally scattered stacking or of one concentrated burden, yet can't be both. By taking the 'basic length' of a basically bolstered shaft into thought, a definitive worth of the general longitudinal shear power in the length could be determined by assuming that the plastic obstruction second can be achieved inside the internal basic cross-area. In this manner the general longitudinal shear power is proportional to the less huge plastic pivotal obstruction inside either the steel part or the solid piece inside the basic cross-area being referred to. We can expect that flexible connectors are utilized for the explanation of the structure strategy for a halfway shear association. One ought to set up the idea of a diminished complete second bend and without the need to survey the slip along the steel-solid interface. By expecting that each connector develops its plan shear opposition, the general longitudinal shear power inside each huge length is identical to the aggregate of the shear protections of the connectors and furthermore to a definitive compressive power inside the solid section. A noteworthy decision for the productive utilization of composite bars in structures is the incomplete shear association. Just bolstered shafts plans rely upon the connector flexibility and when non-pliable shear connectors are utilized the utilization of a versatile bar hypothesis is utilized inside the least difficult structure technique, surveying the longitudinal shear power per unit length, in spite of the fact that when the bendable shear connectors are utilized, the work of plastic obstruction of cross-segments utilized inside the 'stress square plan strategy'. (Talk 10.6.2: Shear Connection II) An insignificant proportion of availability relies on the bar's degree and consideration is pulled in to the necessities thereof. Through the use of the new (FRP) fiber fortified polymer bars as additional reinforcing inside structural building developments, by rapidly achieving progress, it might well substitute the customary steel as it comprises of predominant issue and of a generally excellent cost-viability. It likewise includes a bit of leeway of greater strength to customary steel inside a hazardous air and environmental factors and inside territories where ordinary steel has the unneeded attraction or power conduction. 172357 3 Another technique for segment configuration is inside a non-influence exposed steel structure. A semi-inflexible structure of mostly limited segments in non-influence steel outlines. (Journal of Constructional Steel Research 1999) This of which retains the semi-unbending activity of the 'pillar to section' availability upon the estimation of the proficient length proportion.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

How to Implement Company-Wide Knowledge Management System

How to Implement Company-Wide Knowledge Management System Every business or organization in the world possesses huge amounts of information, data, knowledge and expertise and this amount keeps mounting with each passing day. In order to use this knowledge in the best possible way, there is the need for a system that can collect data, store it, share it and manage it effectively. Knowledge management is a concept that deals with this storing and managing of information or data possessed by a working organization. To understand what exactly a knowledge management system is and how can it be implemented through the company, you can go through the following given information. © | ImageFlowIn this article, we deep dive into the topic of knowledge management by learning 1) a brief introduction to knowledge management, 2) knowledge management systems, and 3) implementing knowledge management system.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A BRIEFKnowledge Management or KM is a procedure involving the organization or management of a company’s information or knowledge. It includes gathering, sharing, developing and administering all the information possessed by an organization in such a way that the best use of that knowledge or information can be made. According to the concept of Knowledge Management, knowledge too is an important asset for any company, and it must be used effectively to bring about positive changes and further profitability. Some of the knowledge assets possessed by your organization include databases, reports, documents, files, financial statements, procedures, policies and even experience of all the workers.The concept of Knowledge Manage ment focuses primarily on the important objectives of a business including change, innovation, gaining the competitive edge over others, improving performances, utilizing knowledge as well as sharing or distributing things learned throughout the workforce.Even in spite of the importance of Knowledge Management, most organizations do not have strategies or ways to implement it and use it to their benefit. This is especially important for small-scale companies that may not consider it crucial to devote time and resources of distribution and utilization of knowledge.History of Knowledge ManagementTwo decades ago in the year 1990, the concept of Knowledge Management first surfaced when it was in the form of formal apprenticeship, discussion forums, corporate libraries, on-the-job discussions, mentoring programs as well as training sessions. But as technology began to advance, and computer systems were being widely used, several changes in the definition of Knowledge Management started t aking place. It was in the year 1999 that the term ‘personal knowledge management’ was first introduced, and this term focused on management of knowledge on a more individual level.Later, the importance of knowledge management was further pressed upon, and it started being accepted by organizations as a part of strategy and measurement. Businesses started realizing that the application of this concept could help them drive cultural change and can speed up the process of learning. Today, it is a known fact that knowledge management can offer superb advantages and benefits not only to organizations as a whole but also to individuals.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSA Knowledge Management System is a system that is used for the application as well as the utilization of Knowledge Management within your organization. Such a system is considered just one part of the overall concept of Knowledge Management but is an important part. Knowledge Management Systems are of many types, and the mai n purpose they fulfill is that of storing as well as retrieving important data, information, and knowledge. Some of the other purposes they serve include the collaboration of data, locating various sources of knowledge, enhancing the Knowledge management process and data mining.A Knowledge Management System can enable your business to make better business decisions, but this does not make it similar to Business Intelligence in any way. Where on one hand, Business Intelligence focuses on explicit knowledge; Knowledge management systems include both explicit and implicit knowledge. The term ‘Knowledge management system’ is mostly used to refer to IT systems that consist of several software modules linked to a central user interface. A Knowledge Management System can not only help you to train new staff and conduct their orientation but also to promote sales.The following is a list of some of the different categories or types of KM systems:Content management systems;Semantic networ ks;Groupware systems KM 2.0;Simulation tools;The intranet and extranet;Artificial intelligence tools;Data warehousing, data mining, OLAP;Document management systems;Decision Support Systems.Importance of Knowledge Management SystemsEvery day, your business receives a huge amount of data and information. While some of this data may not be important at all, other pieces of information or knowledge could be crucial. It is this data or information that can be utilized to take critical decisions and enable certain employees to improve their overall knowledge and skills. This is why, it is very important to store the information and make it accessible for the future course of the business. This is where the importance of knowledge management systems enters the picture. It is the knowledge management systems that enable you to store the data, manage it and distribute it among the workplace whenever needed.The following are some of the points of importance of these systems:Creates knowled ge and learning-based organizations One of the main benefits of having a knowledge management system is that it helps to make learning a habit and routine for your organization and creates a kind of a culture at your workplace which is inclined towards self-assessment as well as self-improvement. The knowledge gained through the process of knowledge management systems makes use of experience to improve processes and streamline operations.Makes way for innovation and workplace changes Managing knowledge regularly and actively through knowledge management systems also makes way for innovation and cultural change. It enables workplace employees to express their ideas and use creativity to perform tasks.Makes way for better decision making The huge database of information and knowledge is nothing less than an asset or wealth for your organization. Storing and then processing of this data can help you make some important decisions in an easier manner. When your manager or other employ ees have access to knowledge through a knowledge management system, they are more capable of making much more informed choices.IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSNow that you understand what Knowledge Management is and what is the importance of Knowledge Management systems, it is time to know how to implement these systems in your workplace to gain the maximum benefits. Without the application of KM systems, your organization may be wasting resources and time on the re-invention of knowledge and spending a great deal of money and time on location or identification of difficult to find information.Thanks to the technological advancements as well as the availability of high-speed networks, your organization has a great opportunity to gather, store, distribute and utilize knowledge in a way you would have never imagined. There are many software products, processes and procedures that can enable the effective implementation of knowledge. The following are the steps that you can ta ke to implement knowledge management systems throughout the workplace.Step 1: Identify the various business issuesThe first step is to identify the various business issues by conducting an internal analysis of your firm. Unless you know what the problem areas are, you won’t be able to align the knowledge management systems with the business goals and objectives. You must thus try to evaluate or assess the variety and quantity of the information that your business has stored in databases, on the web, as well as that which employees possess through their personal experiences and knowledge. Efforts must be made to do a cost-benefit analysis, evaluate the complexity of system structures, get to know training costs, security issues, updating costs and analyze existing business practices.Running away from the fear of the huge amounts of information present to be stored or managed is something that keeps many businesses away from the implementation of KM systems. But this reaction does n ot address the business issue related to managing your corporate knowledge systematically and, hence, will only increase it over time.Step 2: Prepare for transitionOnce problem areas have been identified, the next step is to prepare yourself, your employees as well as the entire workplace for the transition. Application and implementation of KM systems deal with cultural changes at the workplace rather than change in technology alone. Your employees may try to resist the change or may even try to oppose it. To avoid this or deal with it you must follow a smart or wise approach and bring about gradual changes. Give yourself and your employees time to get slowly used to using a new KM system, provide them with the aid and training to adapt to new systems and make sure this phase is dealt with patience and understanding.Most people have a natural inclination and desire to learn and share their knowledge. Each and every employee belonging to your organization wants things to be easier a nd more effective. You must thus make efforts to make them understand the importance of implementation of knowledge management systems so that they can embrace change happily.Step 3: Get together a dedicated teamTo make the implementation of knowledge management system successful, a strong team with an experienced team leader is extremely important. You cannot execute the implementation process without putting someone in charge. Getting together a dedicated team helps to streamline the implementation and get a focused approach for reaching the objective. You must bring together a team consisting of a wide range of expertise so that the skills and experience of each team member can be united for a high-impact result. The team leader you select must possess strong project management skills, extensive experience, broad knowledge and top-level people skills. He/she must have good leadership qualities and should be able to understand the importance of knowledge management.The team you ga ther must chart out a well-detailed plan before starting the process of implementing a company-wide KM system. You must be closely involved in the process to ensure everything runs smoothly.Step 4: Evaluate technology needs and prioritize themThe next step is to evaluate and assess the various technology needs and then prioritize them. You must try to figure out the various sources of knowledge needed to solve the business problems. In order to implement knowledge management systems throughout the workplace, it is imperative to know the potential costs that will be incurred, the expertise and the technology tools that you currently don’t possess but would be required. Identification of what is needed and then evaluating what you have already got will help you determine what is missing. Do not jump the gun and purchase expensive technology without discussing it with the core team or concerned individuals.Once you have made the decision of purchasing the needed technology, you must try to determine the best sources for getting that technology. Compare prices, quality, and brand and only then choose the most affordable yet suitable source.Step 5: Determine the major attributes of knowledge management systemNow the next step involves determining the major aspects or attributes of knowledge management system. You now need to define the key features by drafting a checklist to make sure that the technology that you will be acquiring will be able to address the business problems and will also enhance the overall profitability. The following are some of the key features of KM systems:Open Open systems are those which enable the employees to have access to any information from their current location.Distributed Distributed systems are such systems whose components are well distributed across various servers so as to enable access of knowledge to various branches or offices of your business across the globe.Measurable The system must be measurable in the sense that it must be able to measure who accesses which information from which location and so on. Measurable systems enable better management and analysis of the effectiveness of the overall knowledge management within your organization.Customizable A KM system must be extremely customizable and flexible in order to make way for better usability and better individual experience.Secure A KM system must be secure for the threat of loss of information, the threat of duplication and other security issues.Step 6: Rolling out the building blocksThe implementation process of your knowledge management systems must be a phased out process to ensure that the overall objective can be divided into smaller goals to ease out the procedure and make it more efficient. The following are some of the building blocks which you can use for successful implementation of KM systems at your workplace:Phase 1 This phase involves the search for text-based electronic data sources so as to retrieve advanced informati on with the ultimate goal of improving ROI on existing knowledge.Phase 2 This phase requires Knowledge Mining Software as the technology building block in order to improve the process of finding useful knowledge.Phase 3 Automated Categorization Tools can be used to reach the goal of improving the overall speed of categorizing knowledge and improving its accuracy.Phase 4 The 4th phase involves rolling out of the Knowledge Warehouses so as to improve security, functionality and overall performance of knowledge management.Phase 5 This phase involves allowing users to contribute their knowledge to the Knowledge Warehouses so as to welcome contribution and expand the database of information.Phase 6 This is the phase including the pre-building of knowledge maps through Knowledge Mapping software in order to enable quicker access to knowledge.Phase 7 Phase 7 involves execution of the Knowledge Directory software to locate those individuals who possess a certain required knowledge.Ste p 7: Link knowledge to peopleWhen your organization is faced with a certain business problem, then help of knowledge databases may be needed. These databases are not just records and reports of existing information but also solutions or knowledge possessed by employees. In such a situation, finding out who knows what can be a time consuming and hence it is better to link knowledge to people in advance as a part of the overall implementation of knowledge management systems. There are 2 major ways to do so, and they are given as follows:A knowledge directory: A knowledge directory helps employees of your company to find out subject-specific experts within the organization so that they can share the knowledge possessed by them. This directory could act as a platform where a user can find out the list of experts who are most capable of solving a particular problem. This very link between people and knowledge makes knowledge management different from other applications that manage explic it knowledge.Content management: Content management also forms a crucial part of knowledge management systems and is another way to link people with knowledge. You must hire content managers or use the existing ones who will be responsible for gathering information, editing and updating it, as well as ensuring that it is useful and accurate. Maintenance of content or information is of vital importance and can prove to be a lot of importance when an employee is looking for certain data for a project or for finding a business solution.Step 8: Launch the KM systemWith the help of the sufficient amount of funding as well as important resources, the implementation of knowledge management systems can be achieved. Now that you know what your goal is and now that you have addressed the cultural issues and met technology needs, it is time to launch the program. Once the program is launched, you may come across certain problems, issues and gaps that you need to address as you move forward.Ste p 9: Measure and constantly Improve your KM systemOnly after launching or implementing company-wide knowledge management system will you come to know the areas that are not working as per your expectations. Formulate ways to measure the effectiveness of the program and then make efforts to fill the gaps and make required improvements. After making the improvements, compare old results with the new ones and measure the difference. See how your performance has improved and continue to incorporate these improvements as you go ahead. Do not be too quick to dismiss the program because it takes time and efforts for expected results to show.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Marketing - 3107 Words

I. INTRODUCTION Marks Spencer Group Plc is an international organization which doing business through Europe, North America and Asia. The located headquarter is in City of Westminster, London. The company sales clothing, footwear, gifts, house appliances, and food in over 600 stores in UK and over 300 stores across more than 40 countries in the world (Source online: Web1). The consumer’s confidence in the Marks and Spencer brand remains second to none By the way, the company can achieve many opportunities from global market and at the same time, they also need to build ability to face with many internal and external aspects which influence directly to the organization. In this report, I will use SWOT analysis to assess MS’s market that†¦show more content†¦With more than 1 in 10 clothing items bought from MS, the company remains the UK’s largest clothing retailer. MS leads the market in womenswear, lingerie and menswear and have an expanding childrenswear business.The company’s market share is 9.5 percentage points ahead of next retailer, giving it enough cushion to weather the competition. MS enjoys highest conversion rate of 51.1% and is very successful in converting visitors to loyal main users through its varied product offer, in-store service and garment quality.(Business Source Premier) Weaknesses: Food offering has weak relevance and might not be able to sustain the competition It is highly questionable if MS food offering will be able to sustain the competition. The company’s food stores averages about 5,000 SKUs compared with the supermarket average of 30,000–35,000. Furthermore, the average shelf life for MS products is three to five days for about 70% of the total offering. This highlights MS’ focus on convenience (compared with 55-60% of supermarket dry shelf products with three to four weeks shelf life). 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

International Accounting Standard Mib Water For All Free Essay Example, 1500 words

MIBW4A incurred operational costs in paying salaries and wages for the technical team. Each technician received a monthly salary of USD 100. Annually, MIBW4A will incur USD 3600 within the first year of operation as it will hire three more technicians. With the need to install more filters, MIBW4A will incur more operational cost in salaries in the subsequent years. Other members of the local staff in the monthly payroll include subordinate staffs and operating officers whose salaries would total to USD 845,000. To increase their sales volume, the company plans to hire a sales team of 20 in the second and third year. In the first year of operation, the company hired no team to sell their products, hence incurring no expenses on sales staff within the first twelve months. Each salesperson takes away USD 150 per month. In their annual budget, MIBW4A planned for a weekly testing expenditure on filters estimated to be USD 525,200 over the three year period. As outlined above, MIBW4A bus iness faces a lot of challenges. The business incurred a lot of expense both in operation and fixed costs. We will write a custom essay sample on International Accounting Standard Mib Water For All or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Teen Pregnancy Free Essays

Teen pregnancy wasn’t always a problem. Even a hundred years ago, men and women married and started their families young: life expectancy was far shorter than it is today; school wasn’t nearly as important or widely available; and young families conformed to the established social norm. However, today in the developed world, teen pregnancy is a problem that causes a wide range of social and economic problems. We will write a custom essay sample on The Teen Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now The United States leads the developed world in teen pregnancies, with over twice as many per year as Great Britain or Canada, four times as many as France, and ten times as many as Japan or the Netherlands (Popenoe). As many as 34% of all teenage girls become pregnant at least once before they are 20 years old, resulting in an astounding rate of 820,000 pregnancies a year. Nearly all of those pregnancies are out of wedlock and unwanted and so about half of those pregnancies result in abortion. Poverty and race are correlated with teen pregnancy, too, as teen mothers are more likely to be poor and remain poor if they start a family. Teen mothers are unlikely to finish high school: fewer than one-third of teen mothers receive their degree and a mere 1. 5% receive a college degree before they are 30 (â€Å"The National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy†). Additionally, teenage pregnancies frequently result in short- and long-term health problems for both mother and child. Long-term social effects include the perpetuation of poverty and the weakening of the economic muscle of the nation; clearly something must be done to prevent teen pregnancy in the United States. Many people believe mistakenly believe that sex education and birth control distribution will solve the epidemic of teen pregnancy. The underlying message is that if the birth control methods and education fails, then at least the teen can have an abortion to prevent starting a family. Sex education focuses on safe sex: the proper use of birth control devices including prophylactics and hormonal contraceptives. Barrier birth control devices like condoms can prevent sexually-transmitted diseases as well as pregnancies. Many schools, community and health centers distribute condoms for free to encourage teens to practice safe sex. The birth control approach to teen pregnancy is based on an assumption that teenagers are going to have sex no matter what, because sex is a natural biological instinct or because of peer pressure. By teaching safe sex, teachers and parents feel that at least they are minimizing the chances of causing a pregnancy or spreading a sexually transmitted disease. Sex education also eliminates the need to address the complex moral and psychological issues associated with teen pregnancy: issues that are controversial politically and difficult to discuss. In spite of the rationale behind the prophylactic approach to teen pregnancy, distributing birth control freely to teenagers will fail to solve the epidemic and in fact contributes to the problem of teen pregnancy. Telling teens that they should use birth control and then handing them birth control devices is frankly condoning and even encouraging premarital teen sex. The practice is irresponsible and irrational, because teen pregnancies are far more common now than they were in the 1960s, when birth control and sex education were not a part of the school curriculum. Moreover, sex education starts at a young age, in many cases before the young person is even interested in having sex, increasing the likelihood of misunderstanding, misinterpreting, or misapplying the information. In many cases students do not pay attention either. Contrary to what many people believe, teenagers in the modern industrialized world do not have the mental or emotional maturity to understand the ramifications of sexual intercourse. In the old days, teens married young and their pregnancies usually occurred within wedlock and in a socially-sanctioned setting. Now, teen pregnancies lead to social and economic problems. Furthermore, all birth control devices fail occasionally and many are difficult to use properly by adults, let alone inexperienced teens. At least half of all teen pregnancies result in abortion, which many teens begin to view as a form of backup birth control. The emphasis on birth control and sex education compound the underlying moral degeneracy that causes teen pregnancy in the United States, contributing to racial, gender, and social inequity, to poverty as to the denigration of life. Teaching abstinence is the only meaningful way to reduce teen pregnancy because teaching abstinence addresses the root causes of the problem and provides an effective long-term solution. Abstinence is not a religious idea or a superstitious idea; abstinence is a practical solution to a serious problem. Parents and teachers should teach abstinence first, before they teach children about birth control. Teaching abstinence now won’t be easy because teens expect to have sex and because the media targeted at teens reinforces a view that having sex is normal, cool, and healthy. A message of abstinence goes against what teens see on television so many teens as well as adults may resist the idea. The idea of abstinence may be linked to religious beliefs and therefore many will construe the teaching as being biased. It’s not biased. Teaching abstinence is a universal, practical, simple way to prevent teen pregnancies and the concurrent health, social, and economic problems that go along with it. Teaching abstinence requires a two-fold plan. First, abstinence must be taught from an early age, in school and at home. Second, abstinence teaching must be continued throughout junior and high school and reinforced through community messages and outreach. Teaching abstinence from an early age ensures that the individual will develop an emotional and cognitive framework that will last through their lives. When taught from an early age, abstinence becomes the norm, replacing sexual promiscuity or experimentation as the norm. Teaching abstinence at a young age, from late elementary school, is inexpensive and easy, requiring no special materials or funding. The education does not need to be presented from a religious perspective, but young students should learn about the moral and social ramifications of pregnancy so that they can independently choose abstinence when they reach puberty. Abstinence is a preventative teaching that must be reinforced throughout the pre-teen and teen years. Because they are influenced heavily by the media and by their peers, teenagers must receive continual guidance and support, and regular exposure to the message of abstinence. Therefore, abstinence education must continue into junior high and high school, if not in a formal class setting than through posters, pamphlets, and other accessible material. Parents must also participate by regularly talking to their teenage children, asking them questions about their social life, answering the teen’s questions as honestly and frankly as possible. Basically, abstinence must become a state of mind, a new social norm. Reducing the alarming and embarrassingly high rate of American teen pregnancies requires not a more aggressive birth control campaign but a more systematic abstinence campaign. If we fail to teach abstinence soon, from an early age, and systematically, then teen pregnancies will continue to plague young American women, contributing to social and economic injustice as well as widespread health issues. All Americans can see the negative of teen pregnancy; it is a problem shared by all of us and therefore all of us are responsible for changing the underlying social norms that contribute to the problem and promoting abstinence. How to cite The Teen Pregnancy, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Well As Breakfast Services To The Customers-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Well As Breakfast Services To The Customers? Answer: Introducation I have been working in a restaurant sector for more than five years and have not faced with such situation anytime in the past. The restaurant I work for in involved in offering dining as well as breakfast services to the customers. The restaurant opens in two shifts; one is in the morning and the other in the evening. This kind of shift timing is maintained by the restaurant in order to get ample time for preparing the food items. This in turn helps the restaurant to serve best quality food to the customers. My role in this restaurant is of an operations manager. I look after all the operations in the store that is the kitchen, presentation if food and tables and responsible for maintaining the internal and external environment of the business. Being the operation manager, I was expected to stay the whole day for looking after the restaurant. The raw material for the food and other needs of the restaurant is bought under my supervision. I am the sole person to allow the entry of an item in the store after properly analyzing the quality and environmental considerations. The food is also cooked under my supervision as it is my duty to maintain the power consumption, waste disposal and recycling of waste when required (Montalbo, 2015). A restaurant should have some of these operations ethics for proper maintenance of the environment. As the waste disposed by our store also affects the external environment, being an operations manager it is my duty to supervise that. I handled all the operational responsibility of my store from preparation to waste. However, a few weeks before I got a message from my supervisor that I am not liable to look after the waste disposable duty from today. This was a shock for me as the company just informed me about the changes before prior discussion. It should be an ethical consideration of any business to discuss about any changes in the business before reaching to a decision (Su, 2014). Being a part of the organization and knowing that there must be some genuine reason behind such a decision, I decided to keep quiet and continue the duties I am allotted with. This shows that I followed the stage four of the Kohlbergs Thinking of moral improvement that states about obeying the decision of our authority due to social considerations (Nucci, Krettenauer Narvez, (Eds.)., 2014). I did not question on the decision taken by the restaurant manager due to moral ethics. This is because I was also relaxed that one of my responsibilities was reduced. With the passing time, I realized that due to improper supervision of the waste disposable system, the amount of waste was increasing in the restaurant. Moreover, improper ways of waste disposal was also affecting the external environment. After returning from a leave of two days, I also heard from some staffs working under me that the restaurant is hiring a new operations manager who will be looking for the waste disposal department. This was good news for me, as my responsibility will be fixed in one particular department. However, I was also afraid that this new hiring might be a threat for my position. This is because some of my colleagues also informed me that the new manager is more qualified and experienced than me. One decision by my supervisor or the restaurant manager has put me into two problems. One is being a store operation manager I need to see that the store operations are running smoothly with relation to the cleaning, safety and presentations. Second is the fear of losing my job if the new manager is highly educated. However, with the constraint of not going beyond the decision taken by the head of department, all the staffs in the restaurant was getting affected. A restaurant industrys sole aim is to serve the customers with best quality service and environment irrespective of anything (Huang, et. al., 2014). My operation staffs as well as I were afraid of losing the job with such bad situation of the store. I tried talking about the situation to the store manager about the worsening condition. However, due to some unknown reason he did not give much heed to the issue. In light of moral requirement in business (Weiss, 2014), there are reasons that make this situation a moral dilemma for me as well as for my staffs. This is because the consequences of the action taken by the authorities will affect me as well as my staffs. According to the business environment management, it has been widely recognized that a business is always affected by ethical, environmental and economic considerations (Crane Matten, 2016). Such considerations have to be met in any condition for proper revenue of the business. Moreover, the head manager did not think much before taking this action. He is not bothered that this action is going to affect me, my staffs as well as the reputation of the company. The long-term effect of this might be positive, however, it is presently affecting many people in the company. It becomes my ethical duty to make the authority informed about the situation and its affects. This puts me in stage six of Kohlbergs theory of post-conventional mor ality in which as person acts according to the internal environment principle (Nucci, Krettenauer Narvez, (Eds.)., 2014). In view of the stage five of the Kohlbergs model of morality, it was difficult to reach on any decision about the action that was taken. This is because any decision taken should be a balance between the social need and own rights (Nucci, Krettenauer Narvez, (Eds.)., 2014). I realized that the company was going to benefit in the end with such experienced and qualified operation managers. Thus, it is not wise to directly go and ask about it to the authority. It might happen the head manager has informed the owner of the company before taking any such decision. The decision of the owner is just as he is the maximum stakeholder of the company. Unethical behavior is never accepted in any company and thus would prove to be a threat on my job (Giacalone Promislo, 2014). Unethical behavior is also bad for the business as it might lead to disputes between the management and the staffs, which will in return affect the servicing facility of the restaurant. Thus, it is beneficial that I follow the non-consequential theory of ethics that focuses on rights and integrity. The staffs of the restaurant have the rights to perform effectively and earn well from their job. There are employees who are in their initial stage of career development and such kind of actions will be detrimental to their career if they lose their job. However, raising my voice for their behalf would put my job at risk, as I am uncertain if the head manager took this action on some instruction from the owner of the restaurant. The next option for taking any decision is to follow the Utilitarianism act in consequential ethics (Mulgan, 2014). By following this theory, I will have a discussion with my head manager about the present condition of the restaurant and would try to reach to some kind of compromise that will be beneficial for the entire person affected as well as the company. In doing this I will request my supervisor to allow me to continue with the waste management operation of the business until the new manager joins the company. This will allow the staff to perform their task appropriately and benefit the restaurants environment. On the other hand, I will also have some idea of the view the head manager is holding about my position in the company. This decision will be beneficial for everyone. However, it might also backfire on me as the situation is sensitive and the management did not inform me about it themselves. Final approach that I can take to solve the issue is the egoistic approach (Knez, 2016). This approach usually involves getting our own work done without thinking much about others. I could just focus on completing the task that has been allotted to me without considering much about the staffs and the restaurant surroundings. Performing the task perfectly would help me be in the save side of not losing my job. Although I realize that the staffs also need to earn their living, yet I need to fulfill my own needs to some extent. Based on the above problems and the solutions that I suggested for dealing with that issue I realize that I have moved from one stage to another stage of Kohlbergs theory. I was initially on stage four where I believed on some moral concerns of the business. However, now I am at stage 6 of universal principles (Nucci, Krettenauer Narvez, (Eds.)., 2014). From all the above-mentioned solutions, I am certainly inclined towards the utilitarian approach of business ethics. I am aware that there are some negative impacts of egoistic behavior and an imperative leader always prefer for help others and work for everyones good. This will benefit the business and the employees. The debate on Ethical Leadership This Business School believes that ethical leadership is impossible in a shareholder focused economy According to the character of Mike, it is seen that he is against the topic given in the motion. His behavior is consistent with the ethics duties behavior given in the Maxim 1 of the Modernist theories. Mike is a retired lecturer from a renowned university and has been consistent with his though of business ethics. He believes a company should always have good people that can lead to good environment. However, his behavior towards his daughter puts him in the stage two of the Kohlbergs moral development model (Kurtines, 2014). This is because he is driven by his own interest and wants his daughter to seek his footsteps. This shows that h is demanding in his nature. His daughter is espousing new ethics in the organization that is different from the ethics used by shareholders. Thus, Mike displays stage two of Kohlbergs model and maxim 1 of Deontological ethics. Jan is also seemed to be against the topic suggested by the motion. According to her behavior, she believes in moral ethics, works for the good of her company, and does charitable work (Hoffman, Frederick, Schwartz, 2014). This puts her in the stage 6 of the moral development model and maxim 2 of human dignity. However, it is also seen that being the CEO of the company she has a dominant nature of doing what is right for the companys ethics. This puts her in utilitarian stage of consequentiality theory. She also displays egoism like Mike as she is using he employees for accomplishing her own needs. Mei-Hua is also against the claim given in the motion. She is a a successful and well renowned manager of one of the best pharmaceutical company of the world. She believes in ethics of the business and abides by the rules and governance of the business. This puts her in the utilitarian aspect of the consequential ethics and maxim 1 3 of deontological ethics as she is doing this for the good of all the employees and company (Paquette, Sommerfeldt, Kent, 2015). Moreover, her good intention behind the large settlement implies that she is stage 3 and 4 of the Kohlbergs model. She states that she is just following the rules of the company and working for everyones good. Deshi Chen was the only one person against the motion. He did not believe in ethical leadership. According to him corporate believe in profit and there is nothing as ethics in business. This act of his displays utilitarian thought. He is in the stage 5 and maxim 3 of the moral development model. However, his disagreement on business ethics and view of other teams shows that he believes in egoism of teleological ethics (Bonnemains, Claire, Tessier, 2016). He is following whatever is best for him and not for the ethics of the business. On the other hand, it shows that Deshi might be considered on stage 2 because he is doing what is most beneficial according to his situation. The poverty that he and his family faced made him feel like this. Coming to myself I too believe in ethical leadership which is evident as I did not question my seniors and head of the restaurant about the new hire. The decision I took to stay on the side of utilitarian ethics puts me on stage 6 of universal principle of Kohlberg model. Thus, from the above discussion it is clear that everyone believes in ethical behavior in business environment except Deshi. The holiday case The case discusses about various types of dilemma coming from all people of the company, which played a role in helping Boris to reach on a decision. The first person to face a dilemma in this case study is Boris, the employee of the advertising agency company. He faced a dilemma between choosing his job and working for the client or going to his girlfriend Swee Lans place to meet her parents. Further, he also faced the dilemma while talking to his manager of choosing between his job and his holiday. He faced last dilemma when his friend questioned his decision and he was confused whether his decision was right or his friends are correct. Another person to face the dilemma is Swee Lan who was in a dilemma of choosing her parents happiness and Boris work. She was confused because if she supported Boris in giving up his holiday then she would have hurt her parents. On the other hand forcing Boris to choose the holiday would affect his career. Boriss manager was the third person to be affected by a dilemma between granting Boris his holiday and asking him to serve the client. His choice of allowing Boris to take a holiday would result in losing an important client of the company. Whereas, asking Boris to cancel his holiday would make one of his employee unhappy. The last person is Marcus, friend and colleague of Boris. He faced two sided problem, one is deciding to help Boris on taking a difficult decision he was facing and the other was blaming Boris of canceling his leave. This is because Boris canceling his leave would result in further cancelation of leaves of other employees in case of urgency in business. However, from the above four dilemma, Boris dilemma is the most important as he is the important character of the play. From the dilemma that Boris faced it is clear that he exhibits there characteristic of egoism. This puts him in the utilitarian theory of modernist ethical model. This is seen as Boris decides to cancel his holiday and stay back at office without even consulting his girlfriend. He is also in the stage two of the Kohlberg model as he cancels his holiday for which he will be rewarded in future. However, he is also in the stage 5 of the Kohlberg model where he realizes that there are people in his office and around which have different opinion and he decides to go against those opinions (Crane Matten, 2016). On the other hand, the dilemma that Boris face with his manager puts him in the Utilitarian stage of modernist theory of ethics where he decides to work for his company and get them better projects. This will benefit large number of people in his office as well. This also displays stage four in the nature of Boris as he realized his responsibility of obeying the rules of his office. However, again with Marcus he was egoist as he gave his own opinion that his decision of staying back was right (Mischel, 2013). This shows that Boris has been in ethical dilemma due to its social consciousness and morality towards his office. He will be in trouble in future because of giving up on his friends and girlfriend due to the needs of his office work. Interpersonal and team working skills The debate that we faced in this module was very interesting and helped us to learn many things about our behavior and thinking towards others. During this debate we were able to realize that we went through phase 2 and phase 5 of the Kohlberg theory of moral development. We gave our best in giving our views in all possible way we could. However, initially we saw ourselves at phase 2 of the Kohlberg model because at first we did not took active participation in the debate and was only waiting for good results (Zizek, Garz, Nowak, 2015). On the other hand there were ewe members who only focused on themselves and did not bother to give any response in the debate. They were facing the Utilitarian theory of egoism and self-development (Hayry, 2013). However, as the debate continued we found that it is interesting to be a part of it and give our view. This helped us to know that our thinking about the debate was wrong as it is not for harming anyone. It only helped the team members to share their views that they possess about the topic. As we moved forward the debate became more complex and conflicting and we moved to phase five. We realized that the situation of conflict and argument is an active part of the debate as every individual is sharing their own views on the topic (Lapsley, Carlo, 2014). There was an opposition team also which various kinds of views. The debate had put everyone in the non-consequential ethics which reflected the rights and justice that the people has (Nye, Plunkett, Ku, 2015). As there is no right or wrong answer for anything, it is just the views that differs about a single topic. 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